The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) <p align="justify">The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) with a <strong>P-ISSN of 2719-1842</strong> and an <strong>E-ISSN of 2945-4107</strong> is an annual peer-reviewed open-access journal concerned with the theories, practices, and advances in education and human development. The journal is published annually and the publisher of this journal is the University of Northern Philippines which is located at the World Heritage City of Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Philippines.</p> <p><strong>Focus and Scope:</strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Teacher Education, Educational Development, Education Quality, Administration and Leadership in Education, Access to Education, Higher Education, Education Delivery and Outcomes, Distance Education, Flexible Learning, Blended Learning, E-learning, Gender Education and Issues, Art Education, Guidance and Counseling and Sustainability in Education and Human Development in Philosophy, Psychology, Political Science, Economics, Languages Studies, Communication Sciences, Sociology, Culture and Environment Sustainability.</span></p> University of Northern Philippines en-US The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2719-1842 Understanding the Nature and Condition of Adolescents with General Anxiety Disorder <p>The study aimed to recognize and categorize the characteristics of adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). This study is qualitative research utilizing the multiple case study design to determine the common symptoms of ten (10) individual cases with GAD from each of their psychologists. Interview guide question was developed to set a direction in gathering the clients’ nature and condition. A thematic analysis using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) method was used to formulate relevant extracts' themes to understand their common symptoms. The findings revealed that adolescents who are diagnosed with GAD have manifestations of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms. This study posits an easier understanding of their symptoms in the context of a Filipino setting through their psychologists' transcriptions. With the findings, a better understanding of the perspective of adolescents with GAD can be conveyed to the community in preventing public nd self-stigma amongst them. This is also a step forward in designing effective psychotherapeutic interventions tailored to their needs. A program for their mental health protection and promotion is also recommended for further studies.</p> Alexandria Blake C. Real Jennifer M. Garcia Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 Improving Performance of Education Students in Mathematics in the Modern World by Relay Teaching Method <p>In the Philippines, Mathematics in the Modern World is offered to tertiary level students as one of the g<span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">eneral education courses in almost programs. This course comprises various mathematics disciplines th</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">at aims to expose undergraduate students to various domains of knowledge and ways of co</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">mprehending social and natural realities, developing intellectual competencies and civic capacities. T</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">hrough collaborative teaching, particularly on having more than one instructor in a class could offer a</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> blending of expertise, complementary personalities, and a balanced approach to grading. Thus, relay t</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">eaching method was used. The relay teaching method in this study refers to taking turns in succession i</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">n teaching students the different lessons on Data Management as a selected topic in Mathematics in t</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">he Modern World. This study utilized the pretest-posttest research design with no control group, with t</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">hree groups of education students were subjected to the relay teaching method. The performances o</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">f the students during the pretest and posttest were measured using a valid and reliable multiple-</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">choice type of test. The mean, t-test, and ANCOVA were used to analyze the data. To summarize the f</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">eedback of students, it employed qualitative data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that t</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">here is an improvement in the level of performance of the students on data management with the i</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">mplementation of the relay teaching method. The performance of the students before and after e</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">xposure to relay teaching was significantly different. The BTLEd students have significantly better p</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">erformance than the BPEd students. The relay teaching method significantly helped improve the p</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">erformance of the BTLEd students as compared to the BPEd students. The use of relay teaching could b</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">e more effective with enrichment activities such as coaching and sharing of lecture notes, social n</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">etworking, and the use of social media and the internet.</span></p> Joseph G. Taban Norie T. Tactay Archie A. Martinez Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 4 1 A Reflexive Thematic Analysis of the Lived Experiences of STEM Students on the Use of Online Inverted Learning Approach in Biology <p>To improve the quality of Biology teaching and learning, especially in this new normal, it is crucial to embrace innovations, update programs and curriculum, and develop responsive and appropriate materials, designs, and approaches for instruction. The Inverted Learning Approach (ILA) suggests a timely and applicable approach to the new normal teachinglearning process. In this approach, the roles of teachers and students are reversed, causing students to become more actively involved and at the core of the learning process. Having enough time to self-study instructional videos or learning materials outside of class schedule, students may be able to cultivate their inquisitiveness, confidence, and higher-order thinking skills. A reflexive thematic analysis was used in this study to investigate the experiences of STEM students who were exposed to an online Inverted Learning Approach (ILA) in a biology course. Four themes emerged from the researcher's engagement with the participants exposed to ILA, which include: 1) Developing into active and reflective learners; 2) Enabling students to engage and collaborate more freely; 3) Establishing a flexible, seamless, and nonpressuring space for learning; and 4) Becoming disciplined and responsible for one’s learning. ILA contributes to furthering the development of evidence-based educational practice. It enables teachers to deliver content more effectively by focusing on appropriate, engaging, and contextualized activities, as well as real-life applications of concepts in the class.</p> Rolly James F. Cheng Ricardo T. Bagarinao Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 Tracer Study and Employment of the Teacher Education Graduates of a University in North Luzon, Philippines <p>The quality of education is measured by the employment and establishment of sustainable career paths for graduates. Tracer studies allow higher education institutions to generate integrated data on their graduates' employment while also reflecting the quality of education they provide. This study traced the employment profile of the 2018 Teacher Education graduates at a University in North Luzon, Philippines. It also analyzed the graduates' suggestions about the curriculum and selected employers' feedback. The study utilized the descriptive-survey method of research, questionnaire, and interviews. Results showed that most respondents are 21 years old, female-dominated, single, and passed the licensure examination for teachers and the Civil Service Professional Examination. More than half of the employed respondents landed their first teaching job within six months after graduation in private schools, handling course-related subjects as contractual/provisional and receiving low salaries. Self-employed and unemployed graduates are waiting for job opportunities to exercise their careers in public schools. English communication, professional and significant subjects closely related to effective teaching and learning are essential to them after graduation. Provision for better facilities and equipment, curriculum emphasizing the development of 21st-century skills, exposure to lesson plans and school forms preparation, and presence of specialized teachers to handle major subjects are recommendations to improve the curriculum. Similarly, employers suggested better classroom management, reporting, and personal and professional skills development for the graduates.</p> Corazon G. Pardo Luzviminda P. Relon Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 Experiences of Teachers who were never Promoted until Retirement <p>Teaching is globally respected and forms the foundation of educational frameworks around the world. This study explored the stories of teachers who were unpromoted until retirement despite their dedication. The literature has neglected this set of educators' struggles. This research illuminates these teachers' struggles since their tales are crucial to understanding teacher recognition and career growth. This phenomenological research seeks to comprehend instructors who earned no advancements during their careers. By exploring their lives, the study highlights their distinct emotional and professional obstacles. Qualitative phenomenology was used to study participants and complex experiences. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were done with teachers who have never been promoted. The themes confronted without job development are shown by their perspectives. Face-to-face interviews provide in-depth participant insights. Recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews revealed narrative themes and patterns. Interview topics were extracted and analyzed using thematic analysis. This strategy helped participants identify common challenges and experiences. Professional stagnation, emotional toll, student dedication, and promotion-centric culture emerged from the thematic analysis. Teachers who were never promoted encounter several obstacles. Their frequently disregarded stories highlight the need for more inclusive and supportive school career advancement strategies. Addressing these issues is crucial to teachers’ well-being and motivation. The study's findings affect education and policy. Recognizing teachers who were never promoted until retirement emphasizes their devotion and accomplishments. It argues for inclusive career progression and support networks that prioritize all teachers' professional growth and wellbeing. </p> Glenn A. Guira Arnel Doctolero Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 A Sequential-Explanatory Study on the Financial Literacy of Women Farmers in Ilocos Sur <p>Women farmers are underrepresented in Philippine society. Their existence and hard work are often disregarded and undervalued. This is apparent in localities where agriculture is the leading source of income. This sequential-explanatory study inquired about women farmers' financial literacy level and lived experiences in four municipalities in the 1st District of Ilocos Sur, where most women farmers are located. The study utilized a problem-solving test and survey questionnaires to determine the literacy level of women farmers in terms of knowledge, attitude and behavior, and skills. At the same time, a semi-structured interview was done for the qualitative aspect of the study. Frequency and percentage, mean, and thematic analysis were used to analyze the data. Results showed that women farmers exhibited low financial knowledge and skills and a high financial attitude and behavior, resulting in an average financial literacy. Challenges influenced by their low financial knowledge and skills were due to environmental and social factors. Meanwhile, their high financial attitude and behavior positively impacted their lived farming experiences. Moreover, their exposure to selling, budgeting, saving, and engaging with banking institutions contributed to their average financial literacy. Therefore, the study recommends programs and training implementations by the government to improve the farmers' financial literacy further and empower women farmers. </p> Maria Sofia Guiller T. Tomaneng Reynalyn D. Amistad Jasmine Mild B. Ato Sophia O. Chan Francine Nicole C. Custodio Bonifacio Jonelle D. Peruna Adrienne Bianca C. Solian Christian S. Domondon Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 Navigating Educational Leadership Challenges: Transformations and Policy Implications for Filipino Principals <p>This study explored the multifaceted challenges confronting Filipino school principals in primary education. It synthesized and analyzed eight significant leadership challenges: corruption, political involvement, socio-economic disparities, systemic Department of Education issues, curriculum challenges, principal-centeredness, religious diversity, and the impact of regional military conflicts. To address these challenges effectively, the research proposes several strategies. Firstly, it recommends adopting a distributed leadership model, promoting collaboration among all education stakeholders. Shifting away from a principal-centered approach can alleviate managerial burdens and enhance teaching and learning quality. The study also emphasizes the need for a cultural shift in educational leadership. Principals should actively engage in re-culturing efforts to instill new values, beliefs, and norms within their school communities, fostering a more conducive learning environment and encouraging innovative teaching practices. At the national level, policy reforms are essential to support principals. These reforms should include clear directives on religious instruction, combating corruption within the Department of Education, and revamping teacher support training programs for personal and professional development rather than mandatory attendance. In conclusion, this research underscores the intricate challenges faced by Filipino principals and proposes a roadmap for practical solutions. They embrace distributed leadership, initiate cultural change through reculturing, and implement national policy reforms to empower Filipino principals to lead their schools toward improved educational outcomes.</p> Jesher Edrei Perez Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 The Untold Stories of People Who Had Suicidal Ideations: A Phenomenological Study <p>This study explored and described the lived experiences of people who had suicidal ideations. It gathered information and real-life experiences to reveal the significant life stories of persons with suicidal thoughts. Descriptive phenomenology was employed to explore and describe the lived experiences of young adults who had suicidal ideation. The study included eight participants who were selected purposively. A semi-structured individual interview was utilized in gathering the data. Data analysis was done immediately after every data collection using Colaizzi's seven-step processes. This study has three central themes that emerged from the data which included a) emotional experience, b) life's crisis, and c) sparks of hope in life. The main themes are classified into eleven categories: the feeling of emptiness, feeling of worthlessness, feeling of emotional pain, feeling of giving up, family conflict, intrapersonal conflict, challenging life situations, isolation, restoration and installation of hope, sustaining positive relationships, and sense of life. This research revealed that all have their battles to fight. Coping with their issues, becoming independent, and trying to bridge the gap between their dear ones and, most importantly, with themselves entail emotional labor, as each participant from a different context with different backstories shared their unique experiences. Therefore, student nurses should uplift these vulnerable groups' spiritual values and morals and encourage them to vent their feelings to trusted friends. </p> Krista B. Manzano Pe R. Asuncion Blessie Ann R. Cabato Andrea Mae F. Jimenez Alyssa Jane B. Palacpac Cherry B. Banilad Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 Itneg Mother’s Concessions: Perinatal Beliefs and Practices Unwrapped <p>This study unwrapped and discussed the beliefs and practices of Itnegs during the perinatalperiod, particularly in the pregnancy, postpartum, and infant care phases. A descriptive phenomenology type of qualitative study was utilized to explore the beliefs and practices of theItnegs in Barangay Cadanglaan, Magsingal, Ilocos Sur. With all the revelations of the participants, the following conclusions were coiled: The first central theme is Neonatal andIntrapartal Care with two categories, Superstitious Beliefs and Practices, MultivitaminSupplementation, and Safety Measures; under this theme highlighted the beliefs and practicesthat they follow to attain good delivery of fetus and practices that may lessen the jeopardy ofcomplications that may lead to abortion and other complications of the mother and the fetus.The second theme is postpartum care, which has two categories: scientific and indigenousapproaches. This portion revealed that Itnegs have different beliefs and practices that focus onfaster healing of the mother and prevention of post-delivery complications of the fetus; all are anchored to the inherited knowledge from their predecessors. The third theme is Neonatal Care,with three categories, Protection Feeding Approaches and Home Remedies, which lean onprotecting against harm to the infant, both physiologic and superstitious claims. Lastly, the fourth theme is Introspections with two categories: Culture Adaptation and Culture Preservation,wherein these folks showed how worried they are about possibly eliminating these nativepractices and beliefs and how they adapted new practices. Itnegs are one of the IP groups with gazillions of practices and beliefs that are fascinating and tested over time. However, as days goon, these ancestral concepts weren't transmitted to the present generation, which gives anincreased possibility of being covered up by modern approaches. The revelation of these tribalconcepts is essential because they are not just considered manna but treasures sharpened bytime and challenged by the dynamic world. </p> Daryll Jeremy Virtudes Andrea Janella Labuni Hannah Kaye Tolentino Jamaica Tenorio Lilia Elizabeth Quitevis Glayza Mae Manzano Jantrix Ace Collado Nico Van Adrian Villahermosa Jevie A. Abella Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 Contextualization and Localization of Teaching Mathematics in the New Normal <p>To understand how contextualization and localization have been applied to mathematics instruction, this study explored the effects of the shift in the educational paradigm brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. This research determined the extent of implementation of contextualization and localization in teaching Mathematics among the Mathematics teachers in the fourteen schools in the El Nido Del Norte and Del Sur Districts in the new normal. Mixed methods, quantitative, and qualitative research designs were employed using a survey questionnaire as the primary data-gathering tool and a semi-structured interview guide. The level of implementation of contextualization and localization in teaching Mathematics, specifically in terms of assessment tools and instructional materials, was found to be "High." It was found that creating localized materials was challenging among teaching teachers because it required translating materials into local languages, especially since there are multiple languages spoken in the area. However, teachers receive support from administrators, colleagues, parents, and the community to overcome challenges. Based on these findings, recommendations made in the study included regular professional development, building a community of practice, research and evaluation, policy and technology support, involving parents/local community, and monitoring and feedback.</p> John Paul G. Fabrigas Joseph G. Taban Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 Climate Fiction for the Classroom through Ecocriticism and Collaborative Digital Text Annotation <p>This study took a humanities approach to climate change education, focusing on climate fiction texts in the literature classroom, namely: Barakat Akinsiku’s “The God of the Sea,” Sigrid Marianne Gayangos’s “Galansiyang,” and Jules Hogan’s “Those They Left Behind” from Everything Change: An Anthology of Climate Fiction, Volume III (2021). This encompassed the Quarter 3, Week 7 literature competency in the DepEd Grade 10 curriculum context. In-depth discussion of the cli-fi texts was made possible through the crafting of a lesson exemplar, writing of discussion questions through an ecocritical lens, and using Collaborative Digital Text Annotation (CDTA) as an evaluative reading tool which engendered student responses to the text and interactions within the CDTA activity. Thematic analysis was used in interpreting the digital text annotations which revealed four different themes: drawing out story elements, connecting the text to the real world, performing evaluative reading, and expressing random reactions under which the students' responses to the cli-fi texts were classified. The researchers recommend using online applications such as Google Docs as digital annotation tools during collaborative classroom reading. Also, literature classroom facilitators should create a concrete reward system to encourage students' enthusiasm during the CDTA activities and to achieve the collaborative aspect of the CDTA. Lastly, other reading strategies for evaluating cli-fi texts must be explored.</p> Agata Cristine E. Cabrera Crissa Mae I. Agsalog Ronnel C. Ibea Ofelia E. Tara Jolysa Rose A. Corpuz Mark Louie Tabunan Copyright (c) 2023 The Asian Journal of Education and Human Development (AJEHD) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1